Home' Army News : April 6th 2017 Contents April 6, 2017
Embracing science and technology is critical
to ensuring our Army is ready for the
challenges of the future. In this special feature,
we take a look at how Land Force Design
uses Army Modernisation Lines of Effort to
prepare for tomorrow’s technology, today.
HE Directorate of Land Force
Design in AHQ manages
the future-focused parts of
its modernisation program
with a set of subsystems known as
Army Modernisation Lines of Effort
(AMLE). The AMLE serve as a useful
framework to articulate Army’s
science and technology needs.
The aim of the situational understanding
AMLE is simple: every soldier will be
informed by understanding patterns of
behaviour, constraints and opportuni-
ties of geography, topography, cultures,
environment and forces that allow us to
misdirect, predict and pre-empt.
This is not restricted to the friendly
force. It integrates all of Army’s mod-
ernisation efforts to shape, influence,
know, control, deny and degrade the
friendly, enemy, political and neutral
These activities will occur across the
spectrum of conflict and, in this way,
situational understanding will contribute
to decision superiority.
Through AMLE, Land Force Design
aims to ensure that by 2037:
Army has layered systems providing
multi-dimensional and multi-spectral
data to supported commanders;
big data is managed and informa-
tion is globally accessible within the
network and that advanced analytics
allow tailored processing to suit the
deployed analysts access informa-
tion relevant to their location and
mission, and employ intuitive tools
to rapidly generate actionable intel-
deployed systems dynamically con-
tribute to and draw from strategic
systems to maintain understanding.
Maj Lee Hayward, of Land Force
Design, says key components of
situational understanding are signature
understanding and management.
“We need to understand what the
enemy looks like, as well as what they
can see – or detect and target – of us, and
then adjust our methods accordingly,”
Army is working closely with mul-
tiple areas of Defence Science and
Technology (DST) Group on a number
of technologies to better understand its
signatures – physical and electromag-
netic – and how to manage them. One is
synthetic aperture radar.
“Synthetic aperture radar is a form of
radar that can be used to create images
of objects in 2D and potentially 3D in
all weather conditions. It is particularly
useful for coherent change detection,
canopy penetration at lower frequencies,
or the detection of the wakes of small
marine vessels,” Maj Hayward says.
“Hyper spectral imaging can identify
visible and thermal signatures across
the electromagnetic spectrum, which
can help identify objects based on their
“Passive radar provides all of the ben-
efits of a conventional radar system, but
without the emissions that allow it to be
tracked by an electronic warfare system.
“There is no single solution to sig-
nature management and understanding,
however, as Army develops a greater
understanding of how advances in tech-
nology can assist with detection, it can
adapt to deceive or deny these systems.”
When the volume of intelligence data
can easily overwhelm the analyst along
with processing, exploitation and
dissemination systems, a system of
activity-based intelligence can come
This rapidly integrates data from
multiple sources around the interactions
of people, events and activities.
It aims to discover patterns then
determine and identify change, along
with characterising those patterns to
drive collection and inform decisions.
“This assists the analyst in differenti-
ating abnormal or significant patterns of
activities from normal patterns or behav-
iours,” Maj Hayward says.
“It can establish a baseline for nor-
malcy in the target area or population.
“Once a ‘normal’ behaviour has been
described and detected, future changes
in behaviour – anomalies – are detecta-
ble, including an increase in hostilities.”
As the capability matures, Maj
Hayward says the goal is to take pre-
dictive analysis to a tactical level, with
real-time tipping and cueing of sensors,
dynamic collection and targeting, as
well as closing the sensor-to-shooter
Social media analysis
Beyond cat videos and funny memes,
social media can also be a tool to con-
fuse, manipulate or attack.
‘Noise’ can be generated to drown
out legitimate information while armies
of malicious bots or trolls can cause
trouble on various platforms.
Army is working with the Human
and Social Modelling and Analysis sec-
tion within DST Group’s Intelligence
Analytics branch to build a social media
analysis capability tailored to Army’s
This will provide an ability to inves-
tigate patterns of social interactions over
public social networking platforms and
analyse discussion on blogging sites to
enable a better understanding of social
Maj Hayward says protecting popu-
lations might now include mitigating
against attempts online to provoke nega-
tive reactions and incite violence.
“Advertisements that appear on a
Facebook page are not random, but the
result of clever strategies determined
through the analysis of social media
data,” she says.
In the military context, analysts
could determine the strength of social
connections within a population and
identify who is influencing it.
“It is used to track the flow of infor-
mation, ideas and resources, as well as
who generates, propagates and receives
them,” she says.
“Other social modelling and analysis
tools, such as dynamic topic tracking,
can support sentiment monitoring in a
population, or groups within a popula-
tion, and help to identify instances of
Science is the key to capability
propaganda and attempts to sway the
mood of a population.”
Maj Hayward says it has the poten-
tial to identify trends within a popula-
tion, such as tracking sentiment as a
patrol moves through a crowded market-
place, ensuring the soldiers can be given
early warning of trouble.
Integrated ISR strategic
Intelligence feeds can put a lot of infor-
mation into the hands of a small num-
ber of people who have to check and
process all of this information before
it can be passed to the soldiers on the
This time delay can sometimes
cause issues for information that is
time-sensitive, or is lost within other
information. What if there was a system
that could automatically sort informa-
tion based on its importance and close-
up the processing time?
Enter the Integrated Intelligence,
Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)
Strategic Research Initiative (SRI), a
project designed to make ISR work-
flows easier and more streamlined.
“The SRI has three areas of interest
to Army: advanced sensing technolo-
gies; data analytics; and integrated ISR
architectures,” Maj Hayward says.
“The advanced sensor technologies,
such as hyper-spectral and hyper-tem-
poral imaging, will allow identification
of an object based on the unique elec-
tromagnetic signature it gives off.
“Data analytics can help to automat-
ically make sense of the large amounts
of data that come through the typical
ISR workflow, while new ISR
node during a
trial at US Air
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